Status Near Threatened
Size 65–70cm tall
Gestation 29 days
Young 2-3 eggs are laid
Wrinkled hornbills eat a range of drupes (fruits that have an outer skin, fleshy middle layer and a hard stone or pit with a seed inside) and figs. They will also eat small animals if they find them. This species forages for food among the leaves of the tallest trees in the forests, but they are also known to grab food whilst in flight.
This species is found in lowland areas of Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Brunei. They live in evergreen and swamp forests. They are able to live in forests which have had a limited amount of logging, but aren’t found in secondary forests (forest which have grown back after being cleared).
Wrinkled hornbills nest in tree holes. The female seals herself into the nest using droppings and old food. She leaves a very narrow opening just wide enough for the male to pass her food through. It is thought that they do this because it helps to protect the nest from predators. When the chicks hatch they have pink skin, which turns a dark purple-black colour after about ten days. The female and the chicks squirt their droppings through the opening to the nest so the nest doesn’t get too dirty. The chicks fledge at between 65 and 73 days of age. The female doesn’t leave the nest until they fledge.
This species is threatened by the rapid loss of its habitat, mainly due to illegal logging as well as damage from forest fires. Wrinkled hornbills are particularly at risk because they rely on large areas of lowland forest and avoid secondary forests which have been cleared in the past and have regrown. They are listed on CITES Appendix II, which means that trade in these birds and their body parts is restricted.
Wrinkled hornbills use the flat sides of their bill like a trowel to plaster droppings and food remains onto the entrance to their nest.
These birds usually forage for food in pairs, but have been seen in flocks of up to 30.
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